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Optional Courses at School

With exception of language courses, optional courses are to comprise an in-depth study or amplification of certain teaching items in two or more subjects. They can be given a heavy practical focus by being based, for example, on teaching items from handicraft, technology and domestic science. They can deal with environmental questions (technology, biology, geography, civics) or health care (domestic science, sport, biology, chemistry). Typing can be combined with other technical and practical everyday skills. Housing and environmental studies (domestic science, history, technology, handicraft) and free creativity (Portuguese, pictorial studies, music) are other examples of possible combinations.

Project studies are in-depth assignments chosen by teachers and pupils within the framework of the compulsory subjects. Time must be made available for this purpose, the standard allocation at senior level.     

The work unit conference must suggest how the time allotted for project studies should be distributed between different subjects or groups of subjects. These proposals should be made in time for the school management to be able to act on them when planning the timetable. If it is already decided during the spring preceding the school year in question how the time allotted for project studies is to be deployed, it should be possible for the timetable to be adapted to plans for project studies. In this case there should be no difficulty involved in devoting long, continuous periods to project studies. If, during the time allotted for project studies, periodic studies are pursued and work is confined to certain weeks during the school year, this will give pupils further opportunities of engaging in more extensive tasks.  

The habit of tackling more large-scale assignments of this kind should be gradually inculcated during the pupils’ school career.  

The content of project study should be kept within the framework of the main teaching items of the subject or subjects concerned.  

But work should be aimed at penetrating a limited field and at giving pupils an opportunity of practicing even time-consuming working methods and of planning and assuming responsibility for a major assignment.  

A single project study may be shared by several grades, it may be confined to a single work unit Dr class, Dr it may comprise various studies undertaken by various groups of pupils. The number of project studies undertaken simultaneously in a work unit or class will depend on how many different assignments the work team or teacher concerned feels capable of leading at once.  

Work can be organized on an interdiscip1inary basis if teachers and pupi1s so desire. In-service training and local planning are important to make things easier for the teachers and pupi1s opting for integrated instruction of this kind.  Several different project studies should be undertaken during a school year. There is nothing to prevent the pupils from choosing to continue work on project studies during that portion of the school day which is not governed by the time schedule. On the contrary, it is important for project studies and free activities to be linked together and co-operation thus encouraged between teachers and leaders from associations and organizations.  

Concerning the design of the school day and free activities, Educational and vocational orientation Educationa1 and vocationa1 orientation   is the collective term for elements of teaching specially aimed at preparing pupils for future vocational decisions and at equipping them with knowledge of working life.  

Self-knowledge, interests, values concerning different jobs and ideas concerning the education system and the labor market, knowledge concerning the way in which information can be procured and evaluated and concerning the way in which options and the reasons for different choices are elucidated have a crucial bearing on the individual pupil’s educational and vocational decisions.  

Golf Management School for the Career of Your Dreams

For those who love golf, there are few career options out there that are better than being the manager of your own course. Basically any managerial position in the lucrative golf industry is a great catch. The industry is huge and growing, so now is a great time to learn more about the possibility of becoming a manager. Golf management school is a unique type of college that caters specifically to prospective managers who desire a career in golf.

A management position in the field of golf is an excellent choice, but of course there is a lot of competition for these top notch jobs. That’s where an education at a golf management school comes in. There is no better way to make yourself stand out among other applicants than by achieving a degree that is specific to the career you have in mind. With these special credentials in hand, you will be able to compete favorably with business majors from any regular university.

If you are interested in learning more about the particular courses involved in this type of curriculum, trying searching online for an Associate of Science degree in Golf Management. This kind of associate degree, in some cases, can be earned in less than a year and a half. When sixteen months of effort can net you an outstanding career, it is definitely worth considering. Golf management courses instruct students about managing an entire course. This involves dealing with clients and employees, maintaining facilities and equipment, and a comprehensive education in the parts of the hospitality industry that typically apply to golf courses and country clubs. For example, you can learn how to manage the food and beverage services at your club so that your clients and their families think of your place as a fine restaurant as well as a golf course.

Students learn a surprising amount in the sixteen months of golf management school. In between the management courses, students learn about the fundamentals and the specifics about how the sport is played well. This includes the mental, as well as the physical aspects of golf. Students also learn about the proud tradition of the game, reaching back to fifteenth century Scotland. A number of general education credits are also typically a part of golf programs. These may include English, math, communications, and science classes. The focus, however, remains on the game of golf.

Of course, attending a golf management school is not all work. Students have plenty of opportunities to put their knowledge into practice by playing the game they love. Acceptance into a golf college includes the ability to play on the university’s associated golf courses plenty of times throughout the year. Colleges may also have special facilities for practicing certain aspects of the game such as driving or putting. Computer technology can take your learning to the next level by providing unique analysis of your swing as well as some new ideas for improving your game.

Overall, attaining an Associate of Science degree in Golf Management is a valuable step towards an exciting career. With this degree in hand, you will find that a number of job opportunities are available that would have taken many years to move into any other way. In the competitive field of golf management, it definitely pays to have every possible competitive advantage. If you are interested in this type of career, try learning about a golf management school in your area or around the country. Once you have established a top notch career in your favorite sport, you will know that earning a degree in golf management was the best investment you could have made.

Things They Don’t Tell You About the School District Budget

In every election cycle, there are people running for the school board who want to cut everything that is not tied down. In the current zeitgeist in which we operate, it is fashionable to speak about cutting taxes, teachers, administrators, salaries, benefits, as well as the always mysterious “Frills” and lest we forget, the omnipresent, and equally mysterious and unexplained “Fat”. This article speaks principally to teachers, but briefly, to aspiring school board members who approach the endeavor with a cut everything -Tea Party- teachers are stealing money- administrators are on the “take” agenda. Here’s the first bit of unsettling news: Almost 96% of a school district’s budget is encumbered with things that cannot be cut- these are fixed costs. This means that an idea as simple as cutting taxes, for example, almost never happens. This is because the school district needs some things to function. Here is a short list: Electricity, Water, Natural Gas, Heating Oil, Gasoline, Produce, Baked Goods, Printers, Paper, Computers, Service Contracts for equipment and technology, Liability and other Insurances, books, legal services, accounting services, Maintenance, repair, and replacement of current infrastructure and equipment, to name a few.

Then, there is debt service…that’s right folks, without the borrowing of money and bond issues which require payback for example, there would be no school buildings, roads, police, snow removal, you know, all of those nasty “big government” things that it is so fashionable to hate right now. Hold on, there’s more- approximately 75% of the district budget is encumbered by contracts for personnel- that is, teachers, guidance counselors, administrators, secretaries, custodians, cafeteria employees, coaches, support staff, security, etc. That leaves you with about 4% of the budget that you can actually “play” with as a new board member which is why every June, there is a lot of saber- rattling about ending the interscholastic sports program- which fills the room with angry taxpayers. Besides sports, new Social Studies textbooks can always be postponed for another year- this does not fill the room with angry taxpayers as much as the threat to end sports, but textbooks, chalk, crayons, and a variety of “student things” can be trimmed, but then the fun is over. Are you sure you want this job on the School Board if there will be no actual substantial cuts that can be made? What fun will that be if you are a Tea Party aficionado? There are many superintendents who will confidentially tell you how in every election cycle they have to save eager-to-make-cuts- new board members from themselves as they learn the realities, and legalities of the school district budget.

Now, as for teachers, let’s begin with the budget calendar. The fiscal year for most school districts begins on July 1, and ends on June 30. This is why, for example, the district will fill all of their oil tanks on June 30- the last day of the current heating oil contract- because a price rise will be happening in the next cycle. Anyway, you are asked to think about what you would like to order for next year, either as an individual or as a department, in November and December. That means that if you come up with a great idea for a new piece of equipment any time in the year and you did not order it in the November-December time frame to be included in the budget for the next fiscal year, you are out of luck- maybe…and we will talk about “maybe” shortly. Then the requests from all departments usually have to be into the office secretary around the middle of December to early January.The Principal of your building then reviews all of the budget requests, makes sure that the requests do not exceed your departments allotment and the building’s grand total, and he then submits the proposed building budget to the Business Manager perhaps around Valentine’s Day. The Business Manager then adds up all of the requests- including the amount needed to deal with negotiated raises in personnel contracts- new staff that will be needed and makes projections about how much money in new taxes might be required to make this budget a reality.

Then in March and early April, the Superintendent will have a meeting with all administrators and the business manager to discuss the financial “woes” of the district. Sometimes this requires the administrators all to make a symbolic 10% cut in everything that is not a contracted for item- across the board. Then in April-May-June, the Business Manager and the Superintendent give the “bad news” for the coming year to the School Board who reviews everything- sometimes line by line and asks questions about why the district needs some of the things that are being requested. The following typical question came from one elderly board member once upon a time who wanted to know why the Industrial Arts Department needed 4 new hand sanders each year when he had “the same sander from Sears for the last 30 years and it works fine, dammit”… patiently, the Superintendent reminded the board member that these sanders were used every period of almost every school day for close to 180 days and he-the board member might use his 2-3 times per year, thus, by the same measuring stick, the school sanders were getting 300 years of work in the same time frame as his 30 year old sander. Learn to appreciate your Superintendent- he has to listen to a lot of questions like this and still keep a smile on his face- while the board member asking the question is praised for his or her financial brilliance.

Finally, sometime in May or June, and occasionally at midnight on June 30, the board passes the school budget and life goes on in your school district for another year. Now, this begs the question about the word “maybe” that was used earlier in the article to provide you with a shred of hope that an idea that is urgent and may cost the district money won’t have to wait till next year. Let’s begin the discussion with a question. What does the concept of “Fairness” mean when we speak about the way in which your principal treats staff members? In a legal sense, the building administrator must adhere to the contract. Thus, if some teachers get a duty-free period and others do not, that is unfair, but more importantly, it is illegal. A grievance would be filed and the school district would lose because the contract states that all teachers must have a duty-free period each day. If you are a teacher in the building, it does not matter whether you are the best teacher or the worst teacher, you get the contracted for salary, raises, benefits, etc. Fairness is beside the point.

The “Fairness” being addressed below is the humanistic kind, which is to say, “You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours”, or as Hannibal Lector aptly put it, “Quid pro quo Agent Starling- I told you what you wanted toknow, now you tell me what I want to know.” So, if you are being nice to me, I am going to be nice to you is the humanistic rather than legalistic interpretation of “Fairness”. A boss can be nice to anyone he wants to be nice to as long as he is operating within the dictates of the contract. Even the Bible Book of Galatians speaks about the fruits of the spirit and it states that Kindness is one of them. After the list of “fruits”, Galatians adds, “against these (like Kindness, Goodness, Mercy, etc.) there is no law!” That means that if I, as principal, seem nicer to one person than another, I can do that because there is no law against it- it is not a part of a negotiated agreement. People can’t be taken to court for showing kindness selectively.

What’s the bottom line? Simply this, your boss almost always has extra money to give out to various teachers who come up with creative ideas or materials that would benefit the children in the school and provide you with needed assistance. How do you get this money? You get it by being nice to your boss- by saying yes to that favor he asks of you to do bus duty on a day when the regularly scheduled person is not available. You come in to see him and besides asking him how he and his family are doing (because no one ever does) you proactively ask how you can be of help in that upcoming big parent night or awards ceremony. It’s called helping to “Row the Boat”. Where are we going with this? It’s not complicated. Your principal has money up till at least February to give out to deserving people and the money and amounts he gives out have nothing to do with a contract but everything to do with being kind to people who have been kind to the boss- who have helped him to “row the proverbial boat.” The money will not be given to crabby, negative, quick- on- the- trigger complainers and grievance filers. How do you get this money?

Here is a unspoken part of the budgeting process that occurs in every school- no one will ever tell you this, so take good notes! All of the money in a school’s budget begins in some category. Examples include: General Supplies(staples, chalk, magic markers, etc.), Contracted-for services ( the people who come in in an expensive suit and white shirt and tie to fix the ink covered copier) New Equipment, Replacement Equipment, Field Trips, etc. Now the intrigue starts…In January, the Principal gets a call from the Business Manager and the Business Manager tells the Principal that any money not yet spent is going to be returned to the district funds by, for example February 14. As of today, (January 4, for example) all of the remaining monies will be transferred to the Principal’s account (often called “Office of the Principal” in budgeting parlance) and the categories that the money was in will be zeroed-out for the year. The Business Manager has to look good for his boss too, and if he can recover some funds from each building that went unspent (and there is always money that goes unspent), these can be added to the fund balance for the following year and the taxes won’t have to be raised as much.

This is one of the few “pats on the back” that a Business Manager gets and it is important to him. However, being that he or she is such a nice person, they tell the principals that they have 3-4 weeks in which to do what they would like with the money- within reason, and provided that the Business manager gets half or more of the remaining funds back. This is where you, who have dutifully “rowed the boat” for the good of the cause make an appearance in the Principal’s office to make a modest request for funds for your special project. There is even an exact date to do this- we’ll call it January 15. It is guaranteed that the principal will have some money to KINDLY give out at this time- but there won’t be enough for everybody, and “Fairness” in this instance will not be based on what the contract says. You won’t be able to file a grievance if your next-classroom neighbor gets the money he or she needs and you do not.

We will allow a “word to the wise” to be sufficient here. If you need more information, buy a copy of Machiavelli’s “The Prince”. It only costs five dollars and is about 110 pages long. If you replace the word “Prince” each time it appears with “Principal” you will receive a useful education about the politics of a school and school district.